Two Watersheds - too much institutionalization

Illich’s core critique of modernity is that modern tools, broadly defined, have great benefits, but they have been over applied. As a result, many areas touched by modernity pass through two watersheds:

  1. In the first watershed, a modern approach improves a domain significantly.
  2. In the second watershed, the same modern approach is over-applied, causing “negative returns”, “marginal disutility”, general dehumanization, loss of autonomy, etc.


Last edited on Sep 2022